Notes, Scales & Chords – How Music Works
So now that you know some basic music theory it’s time to get into how music works. The first thing we’re gonna talk about is musical notes and scales.
It can be pretty complex and mathematical but we’re not getting into all that here. These are the basics of what you need to know now.
You might already know the basic notes in music but if not here’s a quick refresher on music notes.
In most western and popular music there are 12 musical notes that can be combined in different ways to create music that actually sounds good.
These are the basic notes you’ll be working with all the time:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G
And each of these notes can be “modified” and sound a bit different than the original. This is done by either making the note a “Sharp” (#) or a “Flat” (b).
So you can have a C note, an A Sharp (A#) note or a B Flat (Bb) note, etc.
One thing to note is this – some notes have different names, but are the exact same. For example, an A# (a sharp note) is the exact same note as a Bb (b flat note).
Confusing right? But that’s because of how music moves. It’s easier to describe when looking at a piano.
In the image above you see the main notes (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) laid out on the white keys of the piano. Now when you want to make a note a flat, you move down one key to the left. When you want to make a note sharp, you move up one key to the right. This is called moving in half-steps (more on this below).
So now when you look at the black keys on the piano you see that they can have two different names. The first black key in the set of 2 (with circle around them) is either a C# or a Db.
That’s because when you start at C (the white key), you have to move up one key to the right to make it sharp (the first black key). But if you’re on the D (the white key) and want to make it flat, you move down one key to the left (the same black key).
Confusing, I know… But read all that again a couple of times and you’ll get it.
And use the chart above as a quick reference to which keys are which.
But now at least you know all 12 notes in music.
The same notes exist on the guitar, but it’s laid out as easily.
Scales are important. They’re the way music moves. You can’t just sit down at a piano or pick up a guitar and play any notes one after another and expect it to sound good.
Certain notes work well with other notes. And that’s why you need to know your musical scales.
What Is A Scale?
A music scale is a set of notes that – when played along with other notes in the same scale – sound harmonic. They sound like they go together and the notes – even though they’re different – sound pleasing to the ear when played one after another.
It’s hard to describe in words, but when you play a scale on a piano vs. playing random notes you can hear the difference.
So how do you build a music scale? Let’s talk about how they’re built.
Intervals (Whole Steps and Half Steps)
This movement is based on different intervals of HALF STEPS and WHOLE STEPS. A half step is moving along the keyboard (either left or right) from key to key WITHOUT any keys in between. On the other hand a whole step is when you move along the keyboard to another key but you DO leave one key in between. Here’s an image to help you visualize what I’m talking about:.
So basically, whole steps skip a key and half steps don’t skip any keys. So, if we start at a C and move to a D, it’s a whole step. This is because there is a black key (a C#/Db) in between the two notes. But if we moved from C to the C#/Db it would be a half step, because there is no key in between the two notes.
The Two Main Musical Scales
So there are two main scales in western popular music – the major scale and the minor scale. The major scale is a lot happier sounding while the minor scale sounds more dark and depressing. You can build both major and minor scales for every note/key on the piano. How you build them all depends on the intervals you use.
The Major Scale
So how do you build a major scale? Well it all has to do with the intervals you use. Remember the whole steps and half steps? Well here’s the pattern that EVERY major scale uses when moving along the keyboard, no matter what key you start on. (W = whole step, H = half step)
W – W – H – W – W – W – H
So for example I’m going to build a major scale on the note of C. This is the root note. You can start on any key and use the above pattern but the C major scale is easy to remember.
So here’s how we’d build the C major scale:
Start at C –> Move to D (“W”) –> Move to E (“W”) –> Move to F (“H”) –> Move to G (“W”) –> Move to A (“W”) –> Move to B (“W”) –> Arrive back at C (“H”)
So we started at C and to move a whole step, we end up at D (there is one key – C#/Db – between the two. When we get to E, we need a half step. This would move up to F because there are no keys in between. Simply use the pattern above and you can build any major scale on any key on the keyboard.
Here’s an image of the C major scale:
The Minor Scale
So similar to the major scale, you can build a minor piano scale using a set pattern of steps. This pattern is:
W – H – W – W – H – W – W
So to build the minor scale for the note C we would start at C and use the pattern above to move to the next notes. Here is what it would look like:
Start on C –> Move to D (“W”) –> Move to E-Flat (“H”) –> Move to F (“W”) –> Move to G (“W”) –> Move to A-Flat (“H”) –> Move to B-Flat (“W”) –> Arrive back at C (“W”)
So now you can see there are black notes included in this scale as well. This is because a half step from D is to the black note to the right of it – an Eb (E-Flat). And when you play it out, it sounds a lot darker and sadder than the major scale.
Here’s an image of the C minor scale:
Now you might be asking why I decided to only call it an Eb and not a D# (D-Sharp). This is because when you’re playing a scale you can only use an alphabet letter once. And we already used a D as the second note (also known as a tone) of this scale.
This is an excerpt from our piano lesson about building chords. The same concepts apply to any musical chord so it will fit here perfectly for our purposes.
A piano chord is a set of two or more notes played together at the same time. These aren’t just random notes played together, though. These are notes that go well together (sound harmonious together).
All major chords use the 1st tone, 3rd tone and 5th tone of the major scale you’re playing in. So, for example, in the C major scale (C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C) let’s apply numbering. Here’s what you get:
C = 1, D = 2, E = 3, F = 4, G = 5, A = 6, B = 7, C = 8
Since the major triad chord is made up of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th tone of the scale, the C-major triad chord would use the notes C, E and G. Go over to your piano and play C-E-G together at the same time. You can hear it sounds bright and happy, just like the C major scale.
Congratulations, you just played your first chord.
The difference comes from the notes that actually make up the major and minor scales. If you remember, the notes of the C minor scale are C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C.
C = 1, D = 2, Eb = 3, F = 4, G = 5, Ab = 6, Bb = 7, C = 8
So the C-minor chord would be made up of the notes C, Eb and G. And again, you can use the same method to find out the minor chord for any of the 12 notes on the piano.
Guitar chords are similar, but again played and laid out differently than the piano.
Other Scales & Chords
There are more scales and chords than just the major and minor, but for now stick to learning and memorizing these ones. When you get good with these scales you can move on to things like the pentatonic scale, blues scale, Arabic scale, diminished chords, seventh chords and much more.
But now that you know how to build basic major and minor scales and chords and you’ll be able to play or make music in ANY KEY you want. You’ll also be able to sing better by practicing these notes with your voice. This is what they do in singing lessons.
All you have to do is choose a note to start at (ex/ C#, Db, Eb, etc).
The next thing you’ll want to learn in our basic music theory course is how music flows. First, we’re going to talk about the Nashville Number System and put numbers to all the notes you just learned. Then we’ll talk about chord progressions and the circle of fifths.