How to Rap and Write Hip-Hop Lyrics in 2021

Learn everything you need to know to become a rapper

Note: Some of the links on this page are affiliate links, if you use our links to buy any of the products we feature on this site, we may receive a commission at no extra cost to you. As an Amazon Associate, Deviant Noise Inc. earns from qualifying purchases.

Last Updated: November 2021

How to Rap Guide

So you want to learn how to rap? When you’re starting out, hip-hop songwriting (i.e. learning how to make a rap song) can seem like something so far out there you don’t know where to start.

In this post we’ll tell you what you need to know about how to write rap lyrics and perform them for the modern era. We’re going to talk about lyrics, melody, structure and more to help you write a rap song you can be proud of.

Since we’re talking about melody as well as lyrics, you might want to learn how to sing better. Also, if you’re interested, check out our guide on how to make your own beatshow to play guitar or how to play piano. (Imagine being on stage, rapping while you play an instrument live? Too dope.)

Quick Note: We assume you know what it means when we use the terms “lyrics,” “melody,” “bars,” and “beats.” If you’re not sure check out our quick music theory guides before you read on.

Quick Start – How To Spit Bars

Before we explain everything about how to write rap in depth, here’s a quick-start guide if you only have 5 seconds to read this post:

  1. Find a Beat/Instrumental That You Love
  2. Choose an Overall Topic to Write About
  3. Find the Rap Flow and Cadence You’ll Use by Freestyling Giberish
  4. Brainstorm Lyrical Ideas / Rhymes / Phrases
  5. Fit Your Lyric Ideas Into Your Flow/Cadence
  6. Refine & Rewrite the Lyrics, Flow and – if applicable – Melody so they’re not sloppy/off-beat
  7. Structure the Lyrics into a Full Rap Song


Masterclass Ad

Learn How to Rap from One of the Greatest Rappers of All Time

Hip-Hop Music is King

Hip Hop Songwriting

Hip-Hop made headlines a couple years ago as it became the primary dominant music genre in America. Now, for anyone like me who has been a Hip-Hop die-hard since the early 90s, it’s always seemed like the dominant genre. And it’s always been more than the music – it’s a culture. Study the elements and know the history. It’s a movement – an intelligent movement (s/o to the teacha KRS-One)

But the music side of the culture (i.e. rap) had officially outpaced “pop” as the primary genre of music consumption in the United States. So now everybody rappin’… And I ain’t mad at it. Hip Hop is life. But rap has changed over the last 4 decades and will always continue to evolve. And if you’re not keeping up with current sound trends, it’s going to be tough to break through. That’s not to say you should be trying to chase fads – you should always bring your own style, voice and personality to anything you do musically.

Staying Current vs. Staying True in Your Hip Hop Verses

If there’s one thing you need to know about how to rap better, it’s this: Make sure you don’t sound dated with your cadence, flow and lyrics when writing a rap if you’re trying to gain mainstream popularity today. New up-and-coming rappers don’t have any issues staying current because they grow up and live in the modern styles. But a lot of O.G. rappers have problems with this.

They either sound super dated (old school) or they sound like they’re trying too hard to be like “the kids.” There’s a middle ground that some really dope emcees have been able to find, though. They stay current and relevant, without trying to be something they’re not. Having said that, if that’s your vibes (ex/ golden era 90s lyricism, or 80s party toasting) that’s cool. Do you. there’s nothing wrong with that. And there’s an audience for that stuff. But if you’re trying to gain any level of “popular” or “mainstream” success, it’s not the current look.

Hip Hop Songwriting Back In The Day

Get Better at Rapping

Hip-Hop has always been all about BARS. Lyricism was king. You had to be witty and clever to be a rapper back in the day. You couldn’t get by on rhyming random shit together. You needed skillful wordplay, metaphors, double entendres and storytelling.

There was a huge focus on lyrical skill and putting together words and concepts in unique and interesting ways. It was more about the message than the vibe. Of course, cadence and flow (the rhythm and speed of how you say your words, how you ride the beat, your timing, etc.) was crucial. But you didn’t get respect for great flow/cadence but wack lyrics.

There was some use of melody, especially for the hook and to accent certain parts of a verse. Bone Thugs N Harmony were notorious for their rapping ability and their ability to harmonize and use melody effectively. But again, people (both fans and artists) really cared about the lyrics back in the day.

Rap Songwriting Today

Arguably, lyrics are less important today. Sure, subject matter is still important, but there’s less of an emphasis placed on clever word play. It’s more about the vibe, the flow and… the all important melody. At the beginning of this post I mentioned Hip-Hop was the dominant genre. I think that’s been helped by the fact that melody has become more and more prevalent and important in Rap and Hip-Hop music over the last several years.

Now I’m a hip-hop head through and through. And I’m a lyricist. But be real – melody has always been a big factor in popular music. It’s what draws people ears. It’s what makes music catchy. So it makes sense that a more melodic Hip-Hop/Rap style would easily overtake traditional Pop. Because even before melody was so prevalent in rap music, hip-hop culture was making WAVES. Add the melody in and it went nuclear.

How to Write Rap Lyrics

Nowadays, a catchy melody in the VERSE (not only the chorus) is almost essential to a hit Hip-Hop song. Cadence and flow is also still important. Acts like the Migos made the triplet-style flow popular and a lot of modern music uses this (or a variation) of this type of flow. So nowadays, to sound current your rap verse should focus on both the flow and the melody.

Even if you’re a lyricist that cares about wordplay and storytelling – incorporate modern flows and melodies into your songwriting. Think of people like Tech N9ne and Royce Da 5’9 – they’re both O.G. rappers that still sound current (and not corny) plus still get insane praise for their lyricism. And MCs like Kendrick Lamar and J. Cole are both “newer” rappers that successfully use lyrics and melody together to achieve huge success. It’s possible to do it all if you want. And if you just want to make fire ass vibes in the studio, you can do that too.

How to Rap for Beginners

To some degree, how you write your own rap song will depend on what lane you’re in – lyrics vs. vibes vs. both.

What is a Rap Bar

A “bar” in hip hop music means a couple of things. First, it refers to a single line of rap lyrics that fits into one “bar” of musical time. A bar of musical time is basically how you count out music to the beat (i.e. “1 – 2 – 3 – 4”). If you don’t understand what I’m talking about read this quick guide on musical time and rhythm. It will teach you how to count bars in rap.

Second, it can be used to refer to a REALLY DOPE line that someone spit. Something that’s extremely clever and makes you go “wow.” Picture you listening to a song and hearing a lyric line that was amazing and screaming out “Damn! THAT was a BAR!” If you’re good to go on these concepts, here’s some tips on how to write a rap verse.

Traditional Rap Lyrics – How to Write Bars

There’s still a huge market for solid Hip-Hop lyricism. Fans of traditional Hip-Hop still exist and they love music. They’re looking for great stories, clever wordplay and real-ass street poetry. But even Kendrick and Cole toy around with melodic ideas in their music. And they’re some of the best storytellers and lyricists out right now.

Writing Lyrics for Rap Music

So if you’re trying to make music like the above mentioned lyricists, then keep paying extra attention to your wordplay, metaphors, punchlines and flows. You flow needs to be ON BEAT. I know Blueface and City Girls are huge right now. But if you want to be a lyricist, you can’t be off beat. And you need to be saying something clever/impactful/interesting.

So practice your timing and make sure you are editing and re-writing your lyrics so that your flow is “in the pocket” (i.e. perfectly timed, solid rhythm/groove and on beat). Think about how you can take an idea or concept and say it in a new, interesting or clever way. Don’t be cliched and say the same old shit that everyone else has already said. Play around with melody where you can, but don’t sacrifice the lyrics for the sake of the melody. Focus on the message and how you spit it.

Modern Rap Lyrics – How to Set a Vibe

If you’re trying to make music like some of the newer cats like XXXTentacion, Drake, Tory Lanez, Travis Scott and others then you better learn how to write solid melodies. Remember, lyrics are still important. The newer artists just mentioned still have solid lyric writing ability. But they incorporate melody a lot more into their verses..

Another big part of modern rap verses are the adlibs – the random sounds and shouts that happen in between lyrics. These play a huge role in setting the vibe of the track. Keep your lyrics sparse and spaced out and pay attention to how you can fill up the empty space between these lyrics with some dope sounding adlibs.

How to Write Rap Lyrics

For the absolute beginners out there looking for hip hop verse writing tips, here’s a quick rundown on how to make a rap.

1. Find a Beat

Most rappers nowadays find a beat online that they vibe with and start writing their lyrics to the track. Some definitely still write without a beat, but if you’re starting out it’ll be easier to catch the pocket with your flow if you write to a track. A good place to get beats to make raps on is BeatStars or YouTube.

2. Choose a Topic to Write About

Want to know how to start a rap song? Get inspired by things. One thing I’ll tell you is this – you have to live life to be inspired. And you should take inspiration from the world around you. and just write about the things you learn, see, experience and observe. Don’t be fake – portraying something that you’re not.

But on the other hand, if you’re telling a story it can still work, even if it didn’t happen to you personally. Before you start putting your pen to paper, try to have an idea of what you want to write about. Usually you can get ideas from the emotion of the beat you’re listening to – is it dark/shady, happy, inspirational, etc.

3. How to Start a Rap – Brainstorming Lyrics + Flows + Rhymes

Learn How to Rap

Now it’s time to start writing rap lyrics. Sometimes, you’ll write straight through  – Bar 1 to Bar 16. (If you don’t know what a “bar” is in rap music, it’s basically a line of lyrics that lasts as long as 4 counts – “1, 2, 3, 4” – of the beat you’re using. Learn more about the concept of bars here.)

Other times you might just start brainstorming dope lines that you’ll try to use somewhere. Sometimes it’s really useful to just start freestyling “giberish/nonsense” to get an idea of the flow/cadence you want to have on the beat you chose. Then you can just match your song idea to potential words/phrases you could use and fit it into the flow you freestyled. And just keep building up the lyrics, bar after bar for 8, 12, 16 or more bars of music.

If you’re trying to get mainstream success, you probably won’t ever write a verse that’s longer than 16 bars. But if you want to really show off your shit then you can write tons of bars – The Game wrote a song called 300 bars and runnin, so do your thang if that’s what you want. Whatever method works for you just start crafting the message/story you’re trying to tell.

Rhyming Your Words

As far as rhyme schemes go here’s a couple basic templates you can follow:

A / A / B / B (First two lines rhyme together, second two lines rhyme together)

A / A / B / A (Bars 1, 2 and 4 rhyme, but Bar 3 doesn’t)

Not everything HAS to rhyme together, but it does sound a lot better if it does. Try not to use too many basic rhymes if you can help it (ex/ bar and star OR fix and mix). Sometimes the story/message is so dope that simple rhymes are fine. But try to use complex rhymes when you can – rhyme multi-syllable words together or rhyme single syllable words with multi syllable words, etc. And always try to find interesting/cool ways of pronouncing words so you can rhyme them with words that aren’t really supposed to be rhymed together. (Eminem, Kanye, Lil Wayne and T.I. are good with this type of rhyming)

4. Structure Your Song

Now it’s time to get your song into a proper rap song structure. That means putting the lines you came up with together into verses and chorus sections. If you want to make a rap song you need much more than a single rap verse. It has to have different sections. So here’s the basics on how to write rap songs for the modern era.

Different Song Sections

A common question is “How many bars in a verse?” Normally rap songs had 2 or 3 16-bar verses and 2 or 3 8/16-bar choruses. But that’s not always the case anymore. Sometimes you’ll see 8-bar verses or 12-bar verses. Sometimes you’ll find some songs that have 2 different 12 bar verses followed by a 4 bar pre-chorus that repeats after verse 1 and 2, before hitting the chorus.

The main thing you want to keep in mind is the STRUCTURE. Sometimes, if you’re a lyricist, you might want to just drop 32 or 64 bars straight, no hook – and that’s totally fine too. But most songs are structured like this:

  • Intro
  • Verse 1
  • (Pre-Chorus if you want)
  • Chorus 1
  • Verse 2
  • (Pre Chorus if you want)
  • Chorus 2
  • Verse 3 or Bridge
  • Chorus 3
  • Outro

Rap Verses – How to Write Rap Bars

So if you don’t know by now, the verse section is the part where you ill rap lyrics will go. It’s where the story/message in the song gets fleshed out with details. You bring the listener in deep. In modern popular music most verses are either 8 bars or 16 bars in length. They’re usually more lyrically dense than the chorus (which we’ll talk about next). This is where you get your shit off, lyrically.

Hip-Hop Choruses – How to Write a Rap Hook

The chorus is also referred to as “the hook.” It’s the catchy part of the song. It’s also where you give a simple, concise breakdown of what the song is about overall. It’s the “summary” of your “story.” Choruses can be either melodic (by using a singer or singing your lyrics), rhythmic (rapping lyrics without any melody to it) or a combination of both.

Lyrically, choruses are usually much less dense. There usually aren’t as many words used, but there are exceptions to this. Also, it’s usually the part of the song that has the MOST or the LEAST amount of energy, depending on what feeling you’re going for. The key thing to remember about your chorus or hook is it NEEDS to be catchy. This is the part of the song that is supposed to “hook” the listener. That’s why it’s also referred to as the hook. Spend a lot of time on this section and get it right.

The Pre-Chorus

A pre-chorus is a section (usually 4 or 8 bars in length) that comes from pop music. It’s not always used in rap songs or hip-hop music, but recently it’s become more popular. It comes in right before the chorus section and helps to build up in energy to it (the chorus is usually the highest level of energy in the song). It can be either melodic, rhythmic or both in terms of lyrics. But it’s separate and distinct from the verse section. It’s a little more catchy or “hooky” than a verse but less catchy than the chorus section.

And usually when you use a pre-chorus, it’s the same exact lyric/melody everytime the section comes around. With verses, Verse 1 and Verse 2 are usually different lyrically (and sometimes melodically). But Pre-Chorus 1 and Pre-Chorus 2 will normally be the EXACT SAME lyrically/melodically (sometimes there are slight variations). You don’t have to use a pre-chorus. But it’s good to know that the option is there for you.


Masterclass Ad

Learn How to Rap from One of the Greatest Rappers of All Time

Stuff to Remember When Learning How to Write a Rap Song

How to Be a Rapper

Here’s a few things you need to always keep in the back of your mind when you’re songwriting. This will help you really cut through the noise that’s out there in the music industry.

Keep Things Fresh

Don’t be boring. Keep shit fresh and interesting. A good rule of thumb is to change something up in your rap verse every 4 bars. Otherwise, things can get monotonous and boring. So change up your flow, cadence, rhyme scheme, intensity – something. Keep things fresh and interesting to the listener.

Don’t Make a Rap Using Too Many Words

Something new rappers fall into when writing rhymes is using too many words to express an idea. That can lead you to being off-beat. Now, we mentioned rappers that have success while still rapping off beat (Blueface, City Girls, etc.). And if that’s what you want to do, that’s fine. It can sound dope sometimes – it’s a style choice nowadays. But if you’re trying to be ON BEAT and you’ve got too many words in a line, it won’t fit within the bar of music and will sound sloppy.

Syllables are important! The number of syllables has to fit and sound “in the pocket.” If you’re new to rapping, this might be tough at first, but get lots of feedback on your lyrics/rhymes. If you can’t fit all the words you want in a bar, cut some out or say things differently so they fit. Re-writing is IMPORTANT. Don’t fall into the trap of just writing what comes to your head first and never changing a thing.

Don’t Be Afraid of Rewriting Your Rap Verse

Rap Bars

I know everyone wants to say they just step in the booth and spit or write a full song in 10 minutes. And if you can pull that off, cool. But don’t ever be afraid of re-writing. Changing shit up because you think it sounds or fits better is good practice. Most songwriters re-write. Including rap writers. You want to make sure you’re writing the best lyrics you possibly can – whether you’re super lyrical or more melody based. Take the time to make it sound legit.

THIS IS IMPORTANT. Only the most talented people can spit something flawless on their first attempt/take. But even the most talented rappers take this art seriously and refine/rewrite their lyrics for MAXIMUM IMPACT. Don’t sleep on this. It’s the cornerstone of good songwriting.

Rap Writing Techniques

So… Should you write with a pen/pad (or phone) or just freestyle? This totally depends on how you feel most comfortable writing – there’s no right or wrong way. Some people are better at just freestyling and stringing stuff together, while others are better at sitting down and writing their thoughts out on paper (or in your phone).

Whatever works for you – do it. One thing I will say is this – if you’re trying to be super lyrical, it might work better for you to write using a pen and pad (or phone). If you’re trying to be more melodic and catch a vibe, then freestyling might work better for you. Try both ways and see what works for your situation.

Final Thoughts – Don’t Beat Yourself Up at First

If you’re just starting out, it doesn’t matter what you do your stuff’s probably gonna suck. That’s ok. Everyone does. Don’t beat yourself up about it. JUST KEEP WRITING. More and more – aim to write 100 songs over the course of a year. You’re going to get so good you’ll look back at your early stuff and be embarrased and laugh about it.

Just keep working on it and I promise your music will get better and better and better. But if you’re not disciplined and writing (and learning/studying styles and lyrics) you won’t. Once you’ve written your hundred songs, then you’ll be at the starting line of being a rapper. So keep putting in the work.

THE ABSOLUTE BEST THING you can do is continue studying and learning. There are 2 books I highly recommend you read if you want to become a great rapper. These are the best books on the art of rapping – it consists of quotes and insights from literally all the G.O.A.Ts in the game – past and present. Gems, Gems, Gems… Get these books. Learn more about them using the affiliate links below:

0 thoughts on “How to Rap”

  1. I was feeling not confident and this helped me so thanks. I feel a detachment between what I write and what I would like to listen to. So I think that’s also an issue, find “your style”, something that I feel is me.

    • Now I can beat ma chest and boast a rapper…I can smile when ever I see ma rap paper…tnx to you man…now I call ma self a rapper.

  2. Easy…just use nigga at least a dozen times, disrespect women, glorify guns and drugs, demonize law enforcement, mumble your words, and pretty much act like a thug and bingo, rap song made!

  3. I’ve been rapping for a long time I’ve seen the transition from the beginning all the way until now and I could not have given them better advice this was great I would have said the same thing to them with a couple twist here and there but yeah same thing great article

    • Great idea fam. We’ll turn it into a PDF and offer it as a free download soon! In the meantime, keep this page bookmarked for easy access

  4. I’m rapping since one year ago. Yesterday I went to record (Im from Arg but I write in Spanish/English mixed)

    My hooks are catchy I mean they stick to your head but I feel kinda monotone how can I fix this? I feel pretty boring

    • Hey fam, great question. You have to try and work with different voice inflections. What I mean is, pay attention to how you speak when you’re really emotionally happy or emotionally sad or emotionally angry. The way your voice sounds is different in each case. Think about how you talk when you’re trying to convince someone about something you’re passionate about. You speak differently than if you’re talking about the weather. Play around with these different voice inflections with your verses and hooks.

      Then try bringing melody into it – learn more about what makes a good melody and try utilizing it in your writing.

      Hope that helps!

  5. This was pretty good for people who cannot really find their sound in music. I’m trying to kick off a career in the industry and I can really spit but I can’t write verses very well. I can do well with hooks and chorus’ because I would freestyle something just to quickly write it down, nowadays I’m feeling more confident with writing full deep songs.

  6. Yo bro this is the best advice I have got since searching the internet for answers you should really make this a PDF it’s really helpful

    • Thanks, I appreciate the love!

      RE: “mumble rap” – I love it for what it is. I’ve been a straight up hip-hop head since the 90s. Ive rapped under the name “Lyrical Militant.” But that don’t mean I can’t appreciate a new sound and style that works. I don’t expect an apple to be an orange when I bite into it, feel me?

  7. This is an amazing article, I’ve bee rapping for a week now and I suck at it. But ever since I read this I greatly improved. Thanks so much!

  8. Damn this is what I been looking for thanks fam one day I will be a great rapper coz of you. Stay blessed mate I wish u was my mentor 👌

  9. First off, I can’t begin to elaborate on how glad I am to have come across this! Thank you a lot. I got value.
    So here’s the thing, I’m new in the rap game. Started last month. But I write good lyrics with rhymes and I love telling stories in my lyrics partly because I’ve been writing poems all along 😂. But my problem is, most often my voice/rap doesn’t flow with the beat. Like, I actually have the melody and rhythm in my head, but when I record and listen to it, it comes off almost like I’m just talking. I would like to know if there’s a way I’d learn to rap faster without losing my breath or can I just stick with the way it comes off and call it “my style” ? Thank you.

  10. wow! most helpful thing I’ve read thanks for posting this. its all fresh, had trouble especially with understanding the concept of bars but thanks.

  11. I majored in Creative Writing, written short-stories/published one, write screenplays/sold one, write poems, I’ve done spoken word events, written free verse stream of consciousness rants, written song lyrics and fronted a metal band, and in all of this have messed around with rap/hip-hop lyrics as well. And glad to hear you say the one thing in everything that’s the most important and what I was taught and have since learned…..Writing IS Re-Writing….You’re right, don’t sleep on that!

  12. dear bro,
    im fami and 39. am i too late too start as an mc?
    i started listen to rap since i was 15 … stuff from bone thugs n harmony, downset, rage against the machine. but song writing is new to me.. and i really love it.
    your article really brings spirit to me to get in line…
    thanks bro.

    • Glad it was helpful! It’s never too late to start making music and even building a career in music. Just don’t expect to become a gigantic pop superstar, because the odds of that happening are slim – it’s usually a market dominated by young artists.

  13. A first of its kind collection, How to Rap is an insightful and intelligent breakdown of the elements of rap for anyone wanting to learn the art form or understand the principles behind it. Author Paul Edwards examines the dynamics of hip hop from every region and in every form – mainstream, underground, current and classic – looking in particular at content, flow, writing and delivery. Edwards provides unparalleled access to the most acclaimed names in rap and their methods of working, with a foreword by Kool G Rap and interviews with over 100 artists, including Public Enemy, Mobb Deep, Schoolly D, Nelly,, Arrested Development, A Tribe Called Quest, and Rah Digga. This one and only comprehensive examination of the MC art form is pure gold for the hip hop lover. Paul Edwards is a writer and researcher of hip hop. He is regarded as a leading expert on hip hop and rap, and has been referred to as the Aristotle of Hip-Hop poetics by internationally acclaimed and award-winning poet Dana Gioia.

  14. I have a monster amount of rap freestyle lyrics I’ve come up with over the years of journalism on the side and honestly they’re really good shit. I’m a white blonde chic from Tampa Florida, 40 years older single parent that has some amazing lyrics to spread … what do I do with all this natural talent ?

    “Come save me …
    I’m needen your hand ..
    I promise it’s a favor …
    Not a demand …
    Just look me in the eye …
    Don’t shy away …
    Can’t you see what I’m tryen say …
    Baby.. those days are gone …
    I left you behind …
    I see what I did…
    I ain’t blind ….”

  15. Yeah, this is been a good to read and I’ve been looking for such exact advice, I write songs but tend to sound monotonous when rapping the lyrics, so gat to try keeping it fresh and see. Thank you

  16. Insightful indeed my dude I have been writing for a minute but im starting to witness the wittiness of my rhymes recently I get props from some hardcore hip-hop brethrens so yeah anyone out there that wanna rap just keep on practicing the improvement is so apparent you will notice it your self not to sound rambunctious but it is what it is practice makes perfect

  17. This was really helpfull
    I was looking for some knowledge to help me perfect my craft and this took it up a nodge
    But I think/feel I need more.
    I actually wrote a lot of things down, like a lot
    Thanks anyways.


Leave a Comment